Supply chain disruptions due to natural and man-made events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, and global and regional conflicts, have become more prevalent in recent times. Businesses need to focus on these issues more carefully as part of their risk management strategies. Many companies seek to insure potential losses caused by disruptions to their supply chain through first-party or property insurance coverage. The insurance industry has designed a range of coverages for this exposure, the main one being contingent time element (or dependent property) coverage, which provides coverage when (typically) physical loss or damage to a third-party supplier or customer prevents that third party from supplying goods to or purchasing goods from the policyholder. Policyholders need to be aware of certain key issues with this coverage.Continue Reading Tomorrow’s supply chain – First-party insurance coverage for supply chains
Courts continue grappling with the application of California insurance law to COVID-19 business interruption claims. After three years of insurance claims and litigation, the California Supreme Court has agreed to provide guidance as to whether the actual or potential presence of SARS-CoV-2 on insured property can qualify as physical loss of or damage to property in Another Planet Entertainment, LLC v. Vigilant Insurance Company.
District court proceedings
Another Planet operates and promotes concerts, events, and festivals in California and Nevada. After its insurer denied coverage for business income losses incurred, Another Planet filed suit in California federal court seeking coverage under its “all-risk” property insurance policy.
In its amended complaint, Another Planet alleged that the virus was present or would have been present had it not closed its venues in compliance with government orders. The insured further alleged that droplets of the COVID-19 virus physically altered the air and property surfaces, constituting physical loss or damage and rendering the property unusable for its intended purpose and function. The pleading further asserted that minimizing the spread of COVID-19 requires physical alterations, including physical distancing, regular disinfection, air filtration, and installation of physical barriers.
Vigilant Insurance moved to dismiss on the basis that Another Planet had not sufficiently alleged direct physical loss or damage to property. On June 21, 2021, the District Court granted the insurer’s motion and dismissed the case with prejudice. Continue Reading California Supreme Court to offer guidance for COVID-19 coverage cases
I recently wrote about lessons that could be learned from the ongoing insurance coverage jurisprudence related to the coronavirus / Covid-19 pandemic. That article discussed broad trends that had developed and cohered across this vast litigation landscape, through multiple decisions in many courts over the course of several months or more. Although descriptive, most of those trends have been and are anti-plaintiff, anti-policyholder, and anti-insurance recovery.
Is a pro-policyholder trend on the horizon?
This piece is different in two important respects. First, it focuses on a point that has not yet achieved a level of pervasiveness that could be fairly characterized as a trend, although it should and hopefully will reach that point soon. Second, this piece discusses a positive outcome for policyholders seeking to recover for their coronavirus- and Covid-19-related losses.Continue Reading Policyholders seeking coverage for Covid-19-related losses may have reason to be optimistic
In the past few months, in cases considering whether SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 can cause direct physical loss or damage to property so as to trigger business income coverage, policyholders have secured three wins in state appellate courts: Ungarean in the Superior Court of Pennsylvania, Huntington Ingalls in the Vermont Supreme Court, and Cajun Conti in the Louisiana…
At $40-70 billion in estimated insured losses, Hurricane Ian is the nation’s second most expensive natural disaster for the insurance industry. Less than two months later, Hurricane Nicole made landfall in Florida. Securing insurance coverage for these losses will be an important part of rebuilding and recovery.
Recently, Reed Smith’s insurance coverage lawyers hosted a webinar, “Maximizing Insurance Recovery after Hurricane Ian,” to answer several frequently asked questions policyholders ask (or should ask) to ensure maximum recovery after these natural disasters. We summarize a few of those answers below.
What type of insurance coverage applies? Property Damage? Business Income? Ordinance and Law? Service Interruption? All of the above?
Put simply, the answer is: It depends on the facts and the language of the policy, but one or more types of coverage may apply. For example, a policyholder may have property damage coverage if they sustained physical damage to buildings, business property (e.g., machinery, equipment, raw materials, etc.), or property of others in the policyholder’s control. That same policyholder may also have service interruption coverage if they experienced dislocation of utility or telecommunications service and suffered business income losses as a result.
All types of common coverages are discussed during the webinar, which can be viewed on demand.Continue Reading Hurricane Ian and Hurricane Nicole: Answering questions policyholders frequently ask (or should ask) to ensure maximum recovery
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented closures and losses for businesses throughout the United States. Naturally, policyholders have sought recovery for pandemic-related losses under their “all risk” commercial property policies. According to the University of Pennsylvania Carey School of Law Covid Coverage Litigation Tracker, there have been approximately 2,300 of these COVID-19 coverage cases filed to date. Early pre-trial court decisions overwhelmingly favored insurers; however, recent appellate and high court decisions have demonstrated a slight shift in favor of policyholders.
For example, one of the first COVID-19 coverage decisions was issued by a Michigan state court in the summer of 2020: Gavrilides Management Company LLC et al v. Michigan Insurance Company. The Gavrilides court rejected the policyholder’s arguments that (1) the loss use of property constitutes a “direct physical loss” covered by the policy and (2) the virus exclusion should not apply since the loss use was caused by government orders. This full dismissal was just the start of policyholders’ uphill court battles. Since Gavrilides, nearly 70% of state court merits hearings have resulted in a full dismissal with prejudice. In federal courts, that number jumps to nearly 87%.Continue Reading Direct physical loss in COVID Coverage cases: Are policyholders seeing a litigation shift in favor of COVID-19 coverage?
This year, Hurricane Ian swept through the Southeastern United States, causing extensive damage to property in the affected areas. While obtaining insurance recoveries for any loss can be a complex endeavor, recovery for hurricane loss is particularly complex, as it typically involves a mix of covered and excluded perils. Most standard homeowners or other property insurance policies provide coverage for wind-related losses, but exclude coverage for loss caused by flood. While some policyholders may have purchased standard flood insurance policies that provide coverage for flood losses; many have not. Whether the policyholder has a homeowner’s or general property policy, a flood insurance policy, or both, the question of recovery for damage caused by mixed wind and flood forces requires a complex analysis as both covered and uncovered causes may contribute to the damage to insured property.
Analyzing combined causes of loss
Where a loss stems from multiple causes, some covered and others excluded, coverage will depend on whether the causes are contributing, or separate and independent causes of loss.
Where separate perils combine to create one indivisible loss, these will be considered combined or contributing causes of loss and courts will generally apply one of two tests:
- A majority of jurisdictions apply the efficient proximate cause test. This test permits recovery for loss caused by a combination of covered and excluded perils when the efficient proximate cause, i.e. the primary event producing the loss, is a covered cause of loss.
- The concurrent cause doctrine, the minority approach, provides coverage for combined-peril claims so long as a covered cause of loss is a contributing cause of the loss, regardless of whether it is the primary cause or not.
Many commercial property insurance policies require that policyholders submit a Sworn Statement in a Proof of Loss (also referred to as “Proof of Loss”) in order to receive benefits under the policy. A Proof of Loss provides the insurer with specific information about the incident giving rise to the claim, such as the cause, the nature of any damage sustained, and the financial impact to the business, if any. In the event a policyholder suffers a financial loss as a result of an insured event, it is essential that the policyholder understands how to calculate business income losses covered under its policy so it can attest to that amount in the Proof of Loss. Ultimately, the specific language in the policy will dictate the policyholder’s approach for calculating business income losses, but there are two general approaches typically used by insurance industry experts.
Top-Down or Gross Receipts Method
The first approach is referred to as the “Top-Down or Gross Receipts Method”. Under this approach, the policyholder must (1) calculate the lost sales resulting from covered property damage and then (2) subtract expenses that were saved as a result of not achieving those sales.
(1) Projected Sales – Actual Sales = Lost Sales
(2) Lost Sales – Saved Expenses = Business Income Losses
- Projected Sales
“Projected Sales” (also referred to as “but for revenue”) is the revenue the policyholder would have earned between the date covered property damage forced the policyholder to suspend its operations and the date when the policyholder resumed, or reasonably could have resumed, normal operations (the “Period of Restoration”) if the insured event had not occurred. To develop a foundation for Projected Sales, the policyholder may consider:
(a) the history of sales in the years leading up to the incident;
(b) the pre-loss average monthly sales achieved in those years;
(c) actual purchase orders and/or contracts that could not be fulfilled/satisfied due to the covered event;
(d) the rate of inflation; and
(e) any other factors that could influence the expected sales volume or price offered for impacted products
These other factors may include seasonality, growth, industry trends, and other outside factors (e.g., political changes, changes in industry regulations, competition, economic forecasts and conditions, etc.).Continue Reading Calculating business income losses for a business interruption claim
Recently, a California federal court issued a favorable decision for policyholders seeking coverage for losses arising from COVID-19 who paid significant premiums to purchase substantial coverage limits including “coverage for business interruption losses from a virus.” Sunstone Hotel Investors, Inc. v. Endurance Am. Spec. Ins. Co., Case No. SACV 20-02185 (C.D. Cal., June 15, 2022).
In Sunstone Hotel Investors, Inc., the Boston Marriott Long Wharf (the “Marriott”) hosted a three-day conference in February 2020. Following the event, the Boston Public Health Department informed the hotel that three attendees tested positive for COVID-19. Sunstone, the operator of the Marriott, timely filed an initial notice of loss with Endurance under its environmental impairment liability policy for the losses stemming from the presence of COVID-19.
In exchange for the placement of the policy, Sunstone paid a significant premium for an aggregate maximum of $40 million limit of insurance to protect itself against all kinds of events, including $25 million for “business interruption losses from a virus.”
After receiving the notice, Endurance denied the claim in full. Following the notice but prior to denial, the Boston public health authorities informed the Marriott that the City would force it to quarantine and close immediately if the hotel failed to suspend its operations. The Marriott thereafter suspended its operations for a period of 14 days. Prior to the hotel’s reopening date, the State of Massachusetts issued a governmental order mandating the closure of all non-essential businesses, which included the hotel. The Marriott thus remained closed until July 7, 2020, when the State permitted it to reopen at limited capacity. Continue Reading A policyholder win: Court finds coverage for COVID-19 related losses
It’s no secret that businesses of all shapes and sizes have suffered tremendous losses during the COVID-19 pandemic. From closures to the “Great Resignation” to ever-changing consumer demands, businesses have dealt with one problem after another. One of those problems is the denial of insurance coverage under “all risk” commercial property policies. For the last two years, courts across the country have found in favor of insurers, ruling that SARS-CoV-2, the virus underlying the COVID-19 pandemic, does not cause physical damage to property.
Enter Marina Pacific Hotel, LLC, et al. v. Fireman’s Fund Insurance Company, 2022 Cal. App. LEXIS 608 (2nd Dist. 2022), a case in which the California Appellate Court looked beyond the preliminary question of whether SARS-CoV-2 causes damage to property and got back to legal basics in its analysis of the plaintiffs’ complaint. With Marina Pacific Hotel, policyholders landed a major victory, and the case may provide a winning framework for plaintiff-insureds facing similar legal battles in the future.
The Marina Pacific Hotel Case
The policy at issue in Marina Pacific Hotel contained much of the standard coverage language which has been heavily debated over the last two years, namely, that the insurer will pay for “direct physical loss or damage” caused by or resulting from a covered cause of loss. This language has proven problematic for policyholders dealing with COVID-19 losses as judges have been reluctant to find that a virus physically alters property when viewed through the lens of what is traditionally considered “property damage.”
However, the Marina Pacific Hotel plaintiffs set out detailed allegations of physical damage, including the fact that SARS-CoV-2 can bond with the surfaces of objects it touches altering the cells and surface proteins of that object. Like insurers around the country, Fireman’s Fund argued that SARS-CoV-2 cannot physically damage property, and that the insured’s loss of use of a piece of property does not constitute physical damage.Continue Reading Looking beyond “Physical Damage to Property”: Is Marina Pacific Hotel a winning framework for policyholders?